Is cognitive function localized or distributed in brain structure?
Localization of function consists of the idea that each cognitive function is associated with a certain brain region. In contrast, mass action consists of the idea that neuroplasticity makes it so that any brain region has the potential to support any cognitive function. Halfway between the two, PDP argues that cognitive functions are based on distributed networks of specialized regions. Those paradigms are made vivid in the brain-city metaphor.